Spengler does not classify the Southeast Asian and Peruvian Incanetc. Adorno published an essay entitled "Spengler after the Downfall" in German: But in destroying the old elements of the Culture, it prepares the way for the rise of a new and overpowering figure: Leontiev, like Spengler later, felt that the West had moved into the latter phase.
He contrasts the "true-type" rural born, with the nomadictraditionlessirreligiousmatter-of-fact, clever, unfruitful, and contemptuous-of-the-countryman city dweller. On the subject of the press, Spengler is equally contemptuous. Where a race-ideal exists, as it does, supremely, in the Early period of a culture Encyclopedia Britannica James Blish.
It is no more than a recorded opinion of the masses on the organizations of government over which they possess no positive influence whatsoever.
Reception[ edit ] InTheodor W. He takes an empirical and religious approach to history and sociology, and focuses mostly on the Islamic world. From this idea flows a kind of historical relativism or dispensationalism.
While he recognizes that all people are a part of history, he argues that only certain Cultures imbue a wider sense of historical involvement.
He reportedly read it in one night and settled on his plan to organize life in Chechnya. Thus, the insights of one era are not unshakable or valid in another time or Culture—"there are no eternal truths.
Science has completely failed to note that race is not the same for rooted plants as it is for mobile animals, that with the micro-cosmic side of life a fresh group of characteristics appear and that for the animal world it is decisive.
The Evolution of Civilizations: Civilizations are what Cultures become when they are no longer creative and growing. Thus they did not so much conquer their empire, but rather simply took possession of that which lay open to everyone. In reaction to the educated elites, the masses give rise to the Second Religiousness, which manifests as deeply suspicious of academia and science.
Heidegger und die praktische Philosophie, p. The ideologies espoused by candidates, whether Socialism or Liberalismare set in motion by, and ultimately serve, only money. For example, Spengler points to the Greeks and Romans, saying that the imaginative Greek Culture declined into wholly practical Roman Civilization.
The "tragic comedy of the world-improvers and freedom-teachers" is that they are simply assisting money to be more effective. He proposed, inthat civilizations mirror natural organisms in experiencing growth and flowering followed by decline and death.
The Culture is capable of sublimating the various customsmythstechniques, artspeoples, and classes into a single strong undiffused historical tendency. For example, Spengler classifies Classical and Indian civilizations as ahistorical, whereas the Egyptian and Western civilizations developed conceptions of historical time.
For this reason, a race is not exactly like a plant: He also does not believe language is itself sufficient to breed races, and that "the mother tongue" signifies "deep ethical forces" in Late Civilizations rather than Early Cultures, when a race is still developing the language that fits its "race-ideal".
Spengler asserts that the Roman Empire did not come into existence because of the kind of Cultural energy that they had displayed in the Punic Wars. As for Marxhis critique of capitalism is put forth in the same language and on the same assumptions as those of Adam Smith. Professor Huntington wrote The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Ordera comparative look at civilizations in the post-Cold War order of international relations.
The authorities however banned the book. However, he maintains a distinction between world-historical peoples, and ahistorical peoples—the former will have a historical destiny as part of a High Culture, while the latter will have a merely zoological fate.
Meaning of history[ edit ] Spengler distinguishes between ahistorical peoples and peoples caught up in world history. Spengler did warn that Hitler was not the right man to guide Europe into the preliminary stages of Caesarism; he thought that Hitler would badly mishandle the whole process.
He sees each Culture as having an initial religious identity, which eventually results in a reformation -like period, followed by a period of rationalismand finally entering a period of second religiousness that correlates with decline.
Each Culture arises within a specific geographical area and is defined by its internal coherence of style in terms of art, religious behavior and psychological perspective. Eventually rationalism spreads throughout the Culture and becomes the dominant school of thought.
Men migrate, and their successive generations are born in ever-changing landscapes; but the landscape exercises a secret force upon the extinction of the old and the appearance of the new one.
The Second Religiousness is simply a rehashing of the original religious trend of the Culture. Freedom, to Spengler, is a negative concept, simply entailing the repudiation of any tradition. To Spengler, Culture is synonymous with religious creativeness. It applies criticism to its own artificial world until it exhausts itself in meaninglessness.
In race Rasse haben there is nothing material but something cosmic and directional, the felt harmony of a Destiny, the single cadence of the march of historical Being.The Decline of the West (German: Der Untergang des Abendlandes), or The Downfall of the Occident, is a two-volume work by Oswald Spengler, the first volume of which was published in the summer of Spengler revised this volume in and published the second volume, subtitled Perspectives of World History, in Spengler introduces his book as a "Copernican overturning" involving the.Download